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Criminal Justice & Criminology

This collection offers an historical overview of how criminal justice has changed in American and English law and the effect criminology has had in facilitating those changes.

Additional Resources

Criminal Justice | Wikipedia

This article from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, part of its Criminology and Penology series, provides an overview and history of criminal justice's manifestation and forms.

Criminology | Wikipedia

This article from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, part of its Criminology and Penology series, provides an overview and history of criminology from its development into its modern day iteration.

Difference Between Careers in Criminology and Criminal Justice

This article from The Balance Careers explores the differences between careers in criminology and criminal justice for law enforcement students, providing further information on the differences between and intersection of these two interrelated disciplines.

Forensic Investigations

This article from PInow.com, a network of local, pre-screened and professional private investigators, provides an overview of the different forensic disciplines, including forensic accounting, dentistry, entomology, and toxicology.

Penology | Wikipedia

This article from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, part of its Criminology and Penology series, provides an overview of the history of penology.

Sentencing Guidelines: South Africa

This report from the Library of Congress provides information on South Africa’s sentencing regime.  Most of the sentencing guidelines and principles currently in place in the country are judge made.  Therefore, Part II of the report briefly summarizes the country’s court structure in order to provide context regarding how these principles and guidelines are applied.  Part III focuses on a general description of the current sentencing principles and guidelines, both judge made and statutory, and the mandatory statutory sentencing regime for specific offenses including murder, rape, compelled rape, and trafficking in persons for sexual purposes.  The final part is dedicated to the existence and role of sentencing institutions. 

Victimology | Wikipedia

This article from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, part of its Criminology and Penology series, provides an overview of victimology, its theories, and manifestations in the criminal justice system.

Juvenile Justice

This resource from youth.gov, a U.S. government website that helps create, maintain, and strengthen effective youth programs, provides an overview of juvenile justice process, including risk factors, prevention and early intervention, and federal- and state-level data.

National Institute of Corrections

The NIC, a division of the U.S. Department of Justice, was formed in 1974 in response to the Attica prison riot. It provides support programs to assist federal, state and local corrections agencies, including training programs for corrections employees and executives and formulating policy decisions.

Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program

The Uniform Crime Reporting Program, a division of the FBI, generates reliable statistics for use in law enforcement. It also provides information for students of criminal justice, researchers, the media, and the public. Agencies participate voluntarily and submit their crime data either through a state UCR program or directly to the FBI's UCR Program.

United States Drug Enforcement Administration

The mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is to enforce the controlled substances laws and regulations of the United States. Their website provides information on their mission and responsibilities, prevention programs, drug scheduling, and law enforcement activities.

American Academy of Forensic Sciences

The American Academy of Forensic Sciences is a multidisciplinary professional organization that provides leadership to advance science and its application to the legal system. The objectives of the Academy are to promote professionalism, integrity, competency, education, foster research, improve practice, and encourage collaboration in the forensic sciences.

Innocence Project

The Innocence Project, founded in 1992 by Peter Neufeld and Barry Scheck at Cardozo School of Law, exonerates the wrongly convicted through DNA testing and reforms the criminal justice system to prevent future injustice. Their works focuses on exonerating the wrongly convicted, improving case law through targeted legal work, passing laws and implementing policies that prevent wrongful conviction, and supporting exonerees as they rebuild their lives.

Legislative Responses for Policing - State Bill Tracking Database (NCSL)

This tool from the National Conference of State Legislatures, a representative body for legislatures in the states, territories and commonwealths of the U.S., provides information on law enforcement legislation that has been introduced in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data is searchable by Executive Orders, Other Issues, Oversight and Data, Policing Alternatives and Collaboration, Technology, Training, Standards and Certification, and Use of Force.

National Center for Victims of Crime

The National Center for Victims of Crime is a nonprofit organization that advocates for victims’ rights, trains professionals who work with victims, and serves as a trusted source of information on victims’ issues. Rather than focus the entire organization’s work on one type of crime or victim, the National Center addresses all types of crime.

National Criminal Justice Association

The National Criminal Justice Association (NCJA) is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit, non-partisan, member association dedicated to assisting criminal justice agencies in the development and implementation of effective criminal justice policy. Its members represent all facets of the criminal and juvenile justice community, including law enforcement, corrections, prosecution, defense, courts, victim and witness services, and academics, as well as elected officials.

The Sentencing Project

The Sentencing Project works for a fair and effective U.S. criminal justice system by producing groundbreaking research to promote reforms in sentencing policy, address unjust racial disparities and practices, and to advocate for alternatives to incarceration. Issues of focus center around sentencing issues and incarceration, drug policy, racial justice, voting rights, and the campaign to end life imprisonment.

FBI Reports and Publications

Today's FBI is an intelligence-driven and threat-focused national security organization with both intelligence and law enforcement responsibilities that is staffed by agents, analysts, and other professionals who work around the clock and across the globe to protect the U.S. from terrorism, espionage, cyber attacks, and major criminal threats. They also provide their partners with services, support, training, and leadership.

Justice Academy Agency Training Manuals

The Justice Academy operates as an NGO and serves as a national repository and portal for instructional materials and specialized training assets that are produced by authors, colleges, law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and the courts. Their mission is to assemble and present the most comprehensive free collection of law and justice education, reference, research, and informational resources available on the web.

United States Department of Justice Organization and Functions Manual

Officially coming into existence on July 1, 1870, the Department of Justice was empowered to handle all criminal prosecutions and civil suits in which the United States had an interest. To assist the Attorney General, the 1870 Act also created the Office of the Solicitor General, who represents the interests of the United States before the U.S. Supreme Court.