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Bremer-Kovacs Collection: Historic Documents Related to the Administrative Procedure Act of 1946

Few statutes have a legislative history as rich, varied, and sprawling as the Administrative Procedure Act of 1946 (APA). This comprehensive collection is designed to make the APA’s history more accessible and understandable.

Documents and Content

Access content by clicking the Documents tab.

Works within this collection were selected by the editors and represent stepping stones in the passage of the APA. They can be:

  1. congressional hearings held on proposed legislation
  2. treatises written by the men involved in the issue of administrative reform
  3. reports on administrative agencies
  4. or textbooks written after the APA's passage

Many of these works are directly linked or mentioned within the timeline. Content is sorted A-Z by title.

View of documents within the collection

Using the Timeline

A first for HeinOnline, this collection features an interactive timeline that charts early efforts in 1929 to pass an administrative reform bill up to the APA's eventual passage in 1946. Interspersed within the timeline are historical events, lending context to what was happening in the world and how these events influenced Congress' actions. View photographs and videos of the people involved, the documents discussed, and links to additional sources both within and outside HeinOnline to dive deeper into the events described in the timeline.

  1. Photographs put faces to the names of people mentioned on a given timeline point. Source information is provided underneath the media on the right-hand side, with a caption on the left-hand side. Click an image to see a bigger version in our Flickr account, along with the other pictures we used (and almost used) for this timeline.
  2. Hyperlinks within the text, such as those demonstrated here, take users to the quoted documents where they reside in HeinOnline.
  3. Other hyperlinks take users to additional, supplemental resources. In the example shown below, these hyperlinks take users to the HeinOnline Author Profile Pages of those mentioned to let you explore their scholarly impact.
  4. These arrows will take users ahead (4b) or backwards in the timeline (4a).
  5. This linear calendar plots all the timeline points by month and year. It can also be used to jump to different events rather than moving point-by-point via the arrows.

An explanation of the timeline feature


To use the timeline, click the white arrow on the right-hand side of the screen to page ahead through the various points of the timeline. Need to back up to a previous slide? Use the white left-hand arrow that will appear once a user begins moving through the timeline. Previews of the next and preceding points' headlines will also populate below the white arrows.

Need to speed ahead into the future (or fly back into the past) and don't want to click through the timeline point by point? Every point is plotted along a linear calendar, showing the year and month an event occurs, offering a visualization of where events fall in relation to each other. Users can also see a preview of the media type displayed on a point. To navigate this feature, click + pull across this linear calendar and select a desired point to jump ahead to on the timeline. Change how this linear calendar is displayed by using the plus or minus magnifying glasses to increase or decrease the zoom level.

Using the timeline

Additional Bibliography

The collection's editors have combed HeinOnline to locate law review articles discussing, dissecting, and dedicated to the Administrative Procedure Act. Sort these articles by title or by author. Click the article's hyperlinked title to be taken to the full text. Certain articles with particular relevance to this history of the APA, such as those cited in foundational monographs, hearings, or congressional reports from the time, are annotated in italics.

Selected features of the additional bibliography